Retrieving and acting on memories of food-predicting environments are fundamental processes for animal survival. Hippocampal pyramidal cells (PYRs) of the mammalian brain provide mnemonic representations of space. Yet the substrates by which these hippocampal representations support memory-guided behavior remain unknown. Here, the authors uncover a direct connection from dorsal CA1 (dCA1) hippocampus to nucleus accumbens (NAc) that enables the behavioral manifestation of place-reward memories.   (Highly recommended)     Read more…

Principal Investigators da differenti Dipartimenti di Sapienza (Dip. di Biologia e Biotecnologie “C. Darwin”, Dip. Di fisiologia e Farmacologia) e o Istituti di ricerca del bacino Romano (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Fondazione Santa Lucia, European Molecular Biology, Istituto Mendel, Cattolica Gemelli) presenteranno i progetti di ricerca in corso e futuri. Sarà inoltre introdotto il nuovo sito di Spaienza Neuroscience, uno strumento utile per orientarsi nelle neuroscienze romane.       Read…

Artificial intelligence (AI)-based methods have emerged as powerful tools to transform medical care. Although machine learning classifiers (MLCs) have already demonstrated strong performance in image-based diagnoses, analysis of diverse and massive electronic health record (EHR) data remains challenging. Here, the authors show that MLCs can query EHRs in a manner similar to the hypothetico-deductive reasoning used by physicians and unearth associations that previous statistical methods have not found.   (Highly recommended)…

The cerebellum contains the second main cortex of the brain and ∼50% of the neurons that constitute the brain. Although the cerebellum has long been thought to subserve motor learning and coordination, more recently it has been recognized to take part in cognitive and emotional processing. Additionally, evidence for cerebellar involvement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, and addiction is growing.   (Highly recommended)     Read more…

After Phrenology by Michael L. Anderson is a unique and thought-provoking contribution to the current debate on how cognition interfaces with the environment and how we can move scientific studies of the brain forward. His theory of ‘neural reuse’ is a proposal for how we may re-frame the debate and fills in some of the gaps that exist now when we communicate about the mind, the brain, and the environment.  …

Changes in the properties and postsynaptic abundance of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) are major mechanisms underlying various forms of synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD), and homeostatic scaling. Here Prof. Diering (University of North Carolina) and Prof. Huganir (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)  review the reliance of synaptic plasticity on AMPAR variants and propose ‘‘the AMPAR code’’ as a conceptual framework. The AMPAR code suggests that AMPAR…