Animals rely on the relative timing of events in their environment to form and update predictive associations, but the molecular and circuit mechanisms for this temporal sensitivity remain incompletely understood. Here, the auhtors show that olfactory associations in Drosophila can be written and reversed on a trial-by-trial basis depending on the temporal relationship between an odor cue and dopaminergic reinforcement. Through the synchronous recording of neural activity and behavior, the authors…

Widefield imaging of calcium dynamics is an emerging method for mapping regional neural activity but is currently limited to restrained animals. Here Scott and collegues describe cScope, a head-mounted widefield macroscope developed to image large-scale cortical dynamics in rats during natural behavior. cScope provides a 7.8 × 4 mm field of view and dual illumination paths for both fluorescence and hemodynamic correction and can be fabricated at low cost using readily…

If you wish to learn more on how brain systems evaluate the affective valence of a stimulus — that is, its quality of being good or bad, please do not miss this opinion review from Prof. Kent Berridge, the James Olds Distinguished University Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at University of Michigan.   (Highly recommended)     Read more…

  In 2019, NeuroSchool Ph.D. Program in Neuroscience of Aix-Marseille University (AMU) will grant 3 three-year PhD scholarships. Contact SARGOLINI Francesca at: francesca.sargolini@univ-amu.fr     The selection process includes three steps. Further information on steps 1 and 3 of the call can be found … Read more…

  Open postdoctoral position at Sapienza University of Rome: looking for an outstanding postdoctoral fellow to work in the labs of Andrea Mele and Arianna Rinaldi in Rome, in close collaboration with Michele Migliore’s lab in Palermo, to map brain circuits in the hippocampus and the dorsal striatum after spatial learning and memory. The project will use IEG expression in wild type and transgenic mice to understand spatial memory induced activity…

Retrieving and acting on memories of food-predicting environments are fundamental processes for animal survival. Hippocampal pyramidal cells (PYRs) of the mammalian brain provide mnemonic representations of space. Yet the substrates by which these hippocampal representations support memory-guided behavior remain unknown. Here, the authors uncover a direct connection from dorsal CA1 (dCA1) hippocampus to nucleus accumbens (NAc) that enables the behavioral manifestation of place-reward memories.   (Highly recommended)     Read more…

Principal Investigators da differenti Dipartimenti di Sapienza (Dip. di Biologia e Biotecnologie “C. Darwin”, Dip. Di fisiologia e Farmacologia) e o Istituti di ricerca del bacino Romano (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Fondazione Santa Lucia, European Molecular Biology, Istituto Mendel, Cattolica Gemelli) presenteranno i progetti di ricerca in corso e futuri. Sarà inoltre introdotto il nuovo sito di Spaienza Neuroscience, uno strumento utile per orientarsi nelle neuroscienze romane.       Read…

Artificial intelligence (AI)-based methods have emerged as powerful tools to transform medical care. Although machine learning classifiers (MLCs) have already demonstrated strong performance in image-based diagnoses, analysis of diverse and massive electronic health record (EHR) data remains challenging. Here, the authors show that MLCs can query EHRs in a manner similar to the hypothetico-deductive reasoning used by physicians and unearth associations that previous statistical methods have not found.   (Highly recommended)…